Shri Ramcharitmanas / Ramayana is the important scripture of the Vaishnavs who worship Lord Vishnu in the form of Lord Ram. There are 24 incarnations of Lord Vishnu out of which 10 are more important and amongst the ten principal incarnations, the ones of Ram and Krishna are the most predominant. Of these two, Ram precedes Krishna.

It is believed that Ram is ‘Maryada Purushottama’ (the best exemplar of Restraint and Modesty) while Krishna is ‘Pushti Purushottama’ (the best exemplar of love and fulfillment). Ram’s life teaches us the way to lead a life of restraint and diffidence, while Krishna’s life teaches us the way of love and fulfillment. For people who worship Ram, Ramayana is extremely important. It narrates an ideal lifestyle, which we ought to follow. However much one may claim of being unaffected and independent, the fact remains that an individual is always influenced by his surroundings, society, media, etc. An individual is like a liquid that assumes the form of the container, whatever the shape. Hence when one listens or reads about an ideal character, he is inspired to be like that. When the characters of our scriptures inspire and motivate the society and the entire nation, people change. Once society and nations change, entire humanity changes for the better. This will help solve most of the problems affecting mankind. Politics is only a superficial arrangement, which cannot solve problems. Until people change themselves no solution can be found. For changing the people, Dharma (religion) has an important role to play. Ram is a Dharma incarnate. Everything that he does is Dharma. Hence to follow Ram in itself is following Dharma (religion).

Considered to be the oldest poet known to man, Valmiki was the first to narrate and put in writing Ram’s story. It was in Sanskrit. Since then many poets and writers have written about Ram. Of the many versions of the Ramayana, two are very popular. The first being sage Valmiki’s Ramyana and the second Goswami Tulisidasji’s Ram Charit Manas composed in simple Avadhi language. It is the language of the area surrounding Ram’s birthplace. Tulsidasji would have never imagined that someday his work would be appreciated and admired all over the world. He basically aimed at making Ram’s story popular in the area where he lived. Hence he wrote it in a language, which was locally known and popular so that the local people would find it interesting try to read and understand it. Goswami Tulsidasji Ram Charit Manas has seven sections –

All these sections cover various periods of Ram’s life. Preceding these seven sections the story of Lord Shiva has been narrated. It is in the form of a prologue to Ram’s story. Beginning with the conversation between Lord Shiva and Parvati, Ramayana is principally written in the form of three conversations. These conversations are between Sage Yagnavalka and Sage Bharadhwaja, between Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati and the third between Garuda and Kagabhushandiji. Just as there are three principal conversations in Shrimad Bhagwat, so also there are three principal conversations in Ramayana. The story of Lord Ram has been elucidated in detail in the Ramayana. Through Ram and other noble characters interacting with him one gets the message of an ideal happy life. If you are a brother, you should follow Bharat’s example. As a father, Dashrath’s. An aide should follow the example of Hanuman. A teacher should be like Vashishtha. The ideal roles of a husband, wife, friend, teacher, son etc. have been depicted and explained through the medium of Ramayana. Ramayana teaches the way of an ideal social life.

The Ramayana and the Bhagwat both are principally devotional compositions. Both aim at making an individual a true devotee and a true lover. The Ramyana manifests the devotional aspects of human beings and thus removes or destroys their grievances.

  • Bala Kanda
  • Ayodhya Kanda
  • Aranya Kanda
  • Kishkindha Kanda
  • Sundar Kanda
  • Lanka Kanda
  • Uttara Kanda.

Dasharatha was the king of Ayodhya. He had three queens and they are Kausalya, Kaikeyi and Sumitra. He was childless for a long time and, anxious to produce an heir, he performs a fire sacrifice known as Putra-Kameshti Yagya As a consequence, Rama is first born to Kausalya, Bharata is born to Kaikeyi, and Lakshmana and Shatrughna are born to Sumitra. These sons are endowed, to various degrees, with the essence of the God Vishnu; Vishnu had opted to be born into mortality in order to combat the demon Ravana, who was oppressing the Gods, and who could only be destroyed by a mortal. The boys are reared as the princes of the realm, receiving instructions from the scriptures and in warfare. When Rama is 16 years old, the sage Vishwamitra comes to the court of Dasharatha in search of help against demons, who were disturbing sacrificial rites. He chooses Rama, who is followed by Lakshmana, his constant companion throughout the story. Rama and Lakshmana receive instructions and supernatural weapons from Vishwamitra, and proceed to destroy the demons.

Janaka was the king of Mithila. One day, a female child was found in the field by the king in the deep furrow dug by his plough. Overwhelmed with joy, the king regarded the child as a “miraculous gift of God”. The child was named Sita, the Sanskrit word for furrow. Sita grew up to be a girl of unparalleled beauty and charm. When Sita was of marriageable age, the king decided to have a swayamvara which included a contest. The king was in possession of an immensely heavy bow, presented to him by the God Shiva: whoever could wield the bow could marry Sita. The sage Vishwamitra attends the swayamvara with Rama and Lakshmana. Only Rama wields the bow and breaks it. Marriages are arranged between the sons of Dasharatha and daughters of Janaka. Rama gets married to Sita, Lakshmana to Urmila, Bharata to Mandavi and Shatrughan to Shrutakirti. The weddings are celebrated with great festivity at Mithila and the marriage party returns to Ayodhya.

After Rama and Sita have been married for twelve years, an elderly Dasharatha expresses his desire to crown Rama, to which the Kosala assembly and his subjects express their support. On the eve of the great event, Kaikeyi—her jealousy aroused by Manthara, a wicked maidservant—claims two boons that Dasharatha had long ago granted her. Kaikeyi demands Rama to be exiled into wilderness for fourteen years, while the succession passes to her son Bharata. The heartbroken king, constrained by his rigid devotion to his given word, accedes to Kaikeyi’s demands. Rama accepts his father’s reluctant decree with absolute submission and calm self-control which characterizes him throughout the story.[ He is joined by Sita and Lakshmana. When he asks Sita not to follow him, she says, “the forest where you dwell is Ayodhya for me and Ayodhya without you is a veritable hell for me.” After Rama’s departure, king Dasharatha, unable to bear the grief, passes away. Meanwhile, Bharata who was on a visit to his maternal uncle, learns about the events in Ayodhya. Bharata refuses to profit from his mother’s wicked scheming and visits Rama in the forest. He requests Rama to return and rule. But Rama, determined to carry out his father’s orders to the letter, refuses to return before the period of exile. However, Bharata carries Rama’s sandals, and keeps them on the throne, while he rules as Rama’s regent.

Rama, Sita and Lakshmana journeyed southward along the banks of river Godavari, where they built cottages and lived off the land. At the Panchavati forest they are visited by a rakshasa woman, Surpanakha, the sister of Ravana. She attempts to seduce the brothers and, failing in this, attempts to kill Sita. Lakshmana stops her by cutting off her nose and ears. Hearing of this, her demon brother, Khara, organizes an attack against the princes. Rama annihilates Khara and his demons.

When news of these events reaches Ravana, he resolves to destroy Rama by capturing Sita with the aid of the rakshasa Maricha. Maricha, assuming the form of a golden deer, captivates Sita’s attention. Entranced by the beauty of the deer, Sita pleads with Rama to capture it. Lord Rama, aware that this is the play of the demons, is unable to dissuade Sita from her desire and chases the deer into the forest, leaving Sita under Lakshmana’s guard. After some time Sita hears Rama calling out to her; afraid for his life she insists that Lakshmana rush to his aid. Lakshmana tries to assure her that Rama is invincible, and that it is best if he continues to follow Rama’s orders to protect her. On the verge of hysterics Sita insists that it is not she but Rama who needs Lakshmana’s help. He obeys her wish but stipulates that she is not to leave the cottage or entertain any strangers. Finally with the coast clear, Ravana appears in the guise of an ascetic requesting Sita’s hospitality. Unaware of the devious plan of her guest, Sita is then forcibly carried away by the evil Ravana.

Jatayu, a vulture, tries to rescue Sita, but is mortally wounded. At Lanka, Sita is kept under the heavy guard of rakshasis. Ravana demands Sita marry him, but Sita, eternally devoted to Rama, refuses. Rama and Lakshmana learn about Sita’s abduction from Jatayu, and immediately set out to save her. During their search, they meet the demon Kabandha and the ascetic Shabari, who direct them towards Sugriva and Hanuman.

The Kishkindha Kanda is set in the monkey citadel Kishkindha. Rama and Lakshmana meet Hanuman, the greatest of monkey heroes and an adherent of Sugriva, the banished pretender to the throne of Kishkindha. Rama befriends Sugriva and helps him by killing his elder brother Vali thus regaining the kingdom of Kiskindha, in exchange for helping Rama to recover Sita. However Sugriva soon forgets his promise and spends his time in debauchery. The clever monkey Queen, Tara, calmly intervenes to prevent an enraged Lakshmana from destroying the monkey citadel. She then eloquently convinces Sugriva to honor his pledge. Sugriva then sends search parties to the four corners of the earth, only to return without success from north, east and west. The southern search party under the leadership of Angad and Hanuman learns from a vulture named Sampati that Sita was taken to Lanka. 1

The Sundara Kanda forms the heart of Valmiki’s Ramayana and consists of a detailed, vivid account of Hanuman’s adventures. After learning about Sita, Hanuman assumes a gargantuan form and makes a colossal leap across the ocean to Lanka. Here, Hanuman explores the demon’s city and spies on Ravana. He locates Sita in Ashoka grove, who is wooed and threatened by Ravana and his rakshasis to marry Ravana. He reassures her, giving Rama’s signet ring as a sign of good faith. He offers to carry Sita back to Rama, however she refuses, reluctant to allow herself to be touched by a male other than her husband. She says that Rama himself must come and avenge the insult of her abduction.

Hanuman then wreaks havoc in Lanka by destroying trees and buildings, and killing Ravana’s warriors. He allows himself to be captured and produced before Ravana. He gives a bold lecture to Ravana to release Sita. He is condemned and his tail is set on fire, but he escapes his bonds and, leaping from roof to roof, sets fire to Ravana’s citadel and makes the giant leap back from the island. The joyous search party returns to Kishkindha with the news.

This book describes the battle between the forces of Rama and Ravana. Having received Hanuman’s report on Sita, Rama and Lakshmana proceed with their allies towards the shore of the southern sea. There they are joined by Ravana’s renegade brother Vibhishana. The monkeys named “Nal” and “Neel” construct a floating bridge (known as Rama Setu) across the ocean, and the princes and their army cross over to Lanka. A lengthy battle ensues and Rama kills Ravana. Rama then installs Vibhishana on the throne of Lanka.

On meeting Sita, Rama asks her to undergo agni pariksha (test of fire) to prove her purity, since she had stayed at the demon’s palace. When Sita plunges into the sacrificial fire, Agni the lord of fire raises Sita, unharmed, to the throne, attesting to her purity. The episode of agni pariksha varies in the versions of Ramayana by Valmiki and Tulsidas. The above version is from Valmiki Ramayana. In Tulsidas’s Ramacharitamanas Sita was under the protection of Agni so it was necessary to bring her out before reuniting with Rama. At the expiration of his term of exile, Rama returns to Ayodhya with Sita and Lakshmana, where the coronation is performed. This is the beginning of Ram Rajya, which implies an ideal state with good morals.

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